The English Civl War lasted from 1642 until 1649 and included what is called the Second Civil War. The war ended with what many in 1642 could never have considered – the trial and execution of Charles I.



January: Charles attempted to arrest five MP’s (January 4th).

Charles left London (January 10th).


February: Henrietta Maria left England to seek military support from

Holland   and France (February 13th)


March: the Militia Ordnance was passed by Parliament (March 5th).


April: Charles was denied entrance to Hull (April 23rd).


July: Parliament established a Committee of Safety (July 4th)

Parliament voted to raise an army (July 12th).


August: Charles raised his standard at Nottingham (August 22nd).


September: Battle of Powick Bridge (September 23rd)


October: Battle of Edgehill (October 23rd).


November: Royal forces advancing on London were stopped at Turnham Green

and Charles had to withdraw to Oxford (November 13th).




May: peace negotiations held at Oxford failed.


June: Battle of Adwalton Moor (June 30th); Parliamentarian forces in

Yorkshire were defeated; Solemn League and Covenant concluded between Parliament and  the Scots.


July: Royalists started their siege of Hull.

Prince Rupert captured Bristol.

Charles started his siege of Gloucester.


September: Earl of Essex relieved Gloucester and defeated the Royalists at Newbury; Solemn League and Covenant ratified by both Houses of



October: Royalist siege of Hull broken by Parliamentarian forces.


December: John Pym died




July: Battle of Marston Moor (July 2nd).


September: Earl of Essex was trapped in Cornwall and surrendered his

entire force at Respryn Bridge.

Divisions apparent in Parliament over the extent of religious

toleration, which brought Cromwell and Manchester into



December: Self-Denying Ordnance introduced though it was not passed until April 1645.




January: start of the creation of the New Model Army.


June: Battle of Naseby (June 14th). Major military blow for Charles I.


July: Battle of Langport (July 10th); Royalists were defeated.


September: Prince Rupert was forced to surrender at Bristol.




April: Charles surrendered to the Scots.


June: Oxford surrendered. The Levellers demonstrated in London.


July: Peace terms were offered to Charles at Newcastle.




February: The Scots handed Charles over to Parliament. Parliament voted to disband the army.


April: The army elected Agitators to represent their case to Parliament.


May: Many regiments refused to disband (May 31st)


June: Charles I seized by Cornet Joyce (June 4th)

Army Engagement General Council set up (June 5th)


July: A Royalist mob invaded Parliament causing some MP’s to flee.


August: The army entered London; those MP’s who had fled Parliament



September: The Army set up winter quarters in Putney.


October: The Levellers published ‘Case of the Army’ and ‘Agreement of the People’ both of which were discussed by the Army Council at Putney.


November: Charles escaped from captivity; the Putney debate ended as a result. A Leveller mutiny at Ware was easily crushed by Cromwell.


December: Charles signed an ‘Engagement’ that invited the Scots to invade England.




January: Parliament voted ‘No Further Addresses’ to Charles

The Army Council disbanded.


April: Uprisings against the government occurred in Kent, Essex, Yorkshire South Wales and Cornwall. All are easily dealt with except in Essex and South Wales.


July: A Scottish army led by Royalist Scots entered England.


August: Cromwell finally defeated the uprising in South Wales and fought

the Scots at the Battle of Preston.


September: Second Civil War effectively over after Colchester was forced to surrender to Fairfax.


November: Army Remonstrance demanded the trial of Charles I.


December: The House of Commons voted to negotiate with Charles (5th)

Pride’s Purge of the House of Commons (6th)

Cromwell offered his support of the purge (7th)




January: A High Court of Justice was established to try Charles (January 1st); the King’s trial opened on January 20th; Charles executed (January 30th)