1943
January 4thOperation Ring approved by STAVKA. It entailed the destruction of the VI Army at Stalingrad unit by unit.
January 8thSTAVKA proposed to von Paulus, commander of the VI Army at Stalingrad, that he surrenders. Von Paulus refused the offer.
January 10thOperation Ring began at 08.00 with a massive artillery attack on the VI Army. The German troops in Stalingrad were hunted out unit by unit as laid down in Operation Ring.
January 12thLeningrad gained a rail line to link it to the outside.
January 13thThe struggle for Kharkov started again. Two Russian armies attacked the Germans at Kharkov.
January 14thThe start of the Casablanca conference.
January 22ndThe Germans evacuated Tripoli in North Africa.
January 31stVon Paulus surrendered the southern group of the German VI Army at Stalingrad. Two days later, the northern group led by Schreck surrendered.
February 2ndThe first Allied merchant ship unloaded its cargo in Tripoli, greatly improving Montgomery’s supply lines.
February 5thThe Americans drove the Japanese out of Guadacanal. What is left of the XVII Army was taken off by the “Tokyo Express”.
February 8thThe Russians retook the city of Kursk.
February 9thGuadacanal was taken by American forces.
February 14thStart of the first long-range penetration patrols by Wingate’s Chindits.
February 16thThe Russians retook Kharkov.
February 20thThe Germans, led by Manstein, launched a counter-offensive against the Russians.
March 2ndThe Germans destroyed the Russian 3rd Tank Army.
March 3rdManstein massed four Panzer corps south-west of Kharkov to launch another massive attack on the Russians.
March 15thThe Germans re-captured Kharkov
March 31stThe weather (a spring thaw) prevented Manstein from making further gains but in five weeks, Manstein managed to push the Russians back 100 miles on the south-eastern Russian front.
April 13thFirst news of Katyn Wood massacre was broadcast by the Germans.
April 19thStart of the Warsaw Uprising.
May 7thThe German army in North Africa surrendered to the British and Americans.
June 5thThe start of Operation Citadel; the German attempt to cut off the Kursk salient.
July 10thBritain and America invaded Sicily.
July 12thThe ‘greatest’ tank battle in history occurred at Kursk.
July 16thThe start of the German withdrawal from the Kursk salient.
July 17th Rome received its first major bombing raid of the war.Mussolini met Hitler at Feltre.
July 24thThe fascist Grand Council agreed that military power in Italy should rest with the king, Victor Emmanuel.
July 25thMussolini was arrested.
July 28thA bombing raid on Hamburg resulted in a firestorm that killed more than 50,000 people.
August 3rdItaly made her first move towards a peace settlement with the Allies.
August 6thGerman troops poured into Italy to stop any chance of a peace settlement taking Italy out of the war.
August 22ndThe Germans began their withdrawal from Kharkov and the Russians entered the city the next day.
August 26thThe Russians started their campaign to liberate eastern Ukraine.
September 3rdBritain and America invaded Italy.
September 8thAmerican/British forces land at Salerno.
September 25thSmolensk was liberated.
October 1stBritish troops entered Naples.
October 9thThe liberation on the northern Caucasus was completed.
November 6thGerman troops were forced out of Kiev.
November 20thStart of the Battle of Tarawa which resulted in the death of over 1,000 US Marines.
November 23rdThe Japanese were driven out of the Gilbert Islands
November 28thStart of the Tehran conference.
December 26th‘Scharnhorst’ was sunk north of Norway.

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