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The Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands

Author: C N Trueman | No comments
The Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands led to the collapse of Spain as a major European power. By 1618 – the start of the Thirty Years War – no catholic country saw Spain as a useful ally. The area concerned was part of the Habsburg Empire and known as

The Revolt of Aragon

Author: C N Trueman | No comments
The Revolt of Aragon was a pivotal point in the monarchy of Philip II. Potentially the Revolt of Aragon was far more serious than the Revolt of the Moricos and the way the revolt was handled at the end by Philip showed the aging king in a good light.

The Peace of Westphalia

Author: C N Trueman | No comments
The Thirty Years War was ended by the Peace of Westphalia which was referred to as the “Peace of Exhaustion” by contemporaries. The Peace of Westphalia was not one specific treaty but rather a collection of treaties commonly linked by the fact that they brought the Thirty Years War

Elizabeth I and the Catholic Church

Author: C N Trueman | No comments
Roman Catholicism was enforced in England and Wales during the reign of Mary I. Protestants were persecuted and a number were executed as heretics. Many fled for their own safety to Protestant states in Europe. However, all this changed on the death of Mary and the accession of Elizabeth

William Cecil, Lord Burghley

Author: C N Trueman | No comments
Sir William Cecil, Lord Burghley, was one of the major political figures in the reign of Elizabeth I. Burghley held all the major political posts in the land and was to all intents the most powerful non-royal in England and Wales.   William Cecil was born on September 13th

Marie de Medici

Author: C N Trueman | No comments
Marie de Medici was born in 1573 and died in 1642. Mary was married to Henry IV and was the mother of Louis XIII. It was during Marie’s regency, that the magnates and the Huguenots attempted to reassert themselves after having their power cut by Henry IV. Once Louis got

Third French War of Religion

Author: C N Trueman | No comments
The French Wars of Religion were a series of nine wars between 1562 and 1598. They saw the rise and fall of Catherine de Medici and ended with the accession to the throne of Henry IV. The First War (April 1562 to March 1563) England partially involved herself in

Catherine De Medici

Author: C N Trueman | No comments
Catherine de Medici played an important part in the history of Sixteenth Century France. Catherine de Medici has been held partly responsible for starting the French Wars of Religion. But has her contribution been exaggerated? It is all but impossible to blame one person for a war let alone

Thirty Years War

Author: C N Trueman | No comments
The causes of the Thirty Years War in Western Europe: By 1600, two camps had emerged in western Europe: France and the United Provinces The House of Habsburg (Spain and Austria) Phillip III of Spain attempted to continue the foreign policy aspirations of his father, Phillip II, which essentially

Richelieu and Foreign Policy

Author: C N Trueman | No comments
Cardinal Richelieu had one simple foreign policy aim – to fight for France’s interests by whatever measures were needed. As a loyal servant to Louis XIII, Richelieu wanted France to be the dominant power in Europe and give Louis the status Richelieu felt he deserved. When deciding foreign policy