|Operation Ring approved by STAVKA. It entailed the destruction of the VI Army at Stalingrad unit by unit.
|STAVKA proposed to von Paulus, commander of the VI Army at Stalingrad, that he surrenders. Von Paulus refused the offer.
|Operation Ring began at 08.00 with a massive artillery attack on the VI Army. The German troops in Stalingrad were hunted out unit by unit as laid down in Operation Ring.
|Leningrad gained a rail line to link it to the outside.
|The struggle for Kharkov started again. Two Russian armies attacked the Germans at Kharkov.
|The start of the Casablanca conference.
|The Germans evacuated Tripoli in North Africa.
|Von Paulus surrendered the southern group of the German VI Army at Stalingrad. Two days later, the northern group led by Schreck surrendered.
|The first Allied merchant ship unloaded its cargo in Tripoli, greatly improving Montgomery’s supply lines.
|The Americans drove the Japanese out of Guadacanal. What is left of the XVII Army was taken off by the “Tokyo Express”.
|The Russians retook the city of Kursk.
|Guadacanal was taken by American forces.
|Start of the first long-range penetration patrols by Wingate’s Chindits.
|The Russians retook Kharkov.
|The Germans, led by Manstein, launched a counter-offensive against the Russians.
|The Germans destroyed the Russian 3rd Tank Army.
|Manstein massed four Panzer corps south-west of Kharkov to launch another massive attack on the Russians.
|The Germans re-captured Kharkov
|The weather (a spring thaw) prevented Manstein from making further gains but in five weeks, Manstein managed to push the Russians back 100 miles on the south-eastern Russian front.
|First news of Katyn Wood massacre was broadcast by the Germans.
|Start of the Warsaw Uprising.
|The German army in North Africa surrendered to the British and Americans.
|The start of Operation Citadel; the German attempt to cut off the Kursk salient.
|Britain and America invaded Sicily.
|The ‘greatest’ tank battle in history occurred at Kursk.
|The start of the German withdrawal from the Kursk salient.
|Rome received its first major bombing raid of the war.Mussolini met Hitler at Feltre.
|The fascist Grand Council agreed that military power in Italy should rest with the king, Victor Emmanuel.
|Mussolini was arrested.
|A bombing raid on Hamburg resulted in a firestorm that killed more than 50,000 people.
|Italy made her first move towards a peace settlement with the Allies.
|German troops poured into Italy to stop any chance of a peace settlement taking Italy out of the war.
|The Germans began their withdrawal from Kharkov and the Russians entered the city the next day.
|The Russians started their campaign to liberate eastern Ukraine.
|Britain and America invaded Italy.
|American/British forces land at Salerno.
|Smolensk was liberated.
|British troops entered Naples.
|The liberation on the northern Caucasus was completed.
|German troops were forced out of Kiev.
|Start of the Battle of Tarawa which resulted in the death of over 1,000 US Marines.
|The Japanese were driven out of the Gilbert Islands
|Start of the Tehran conference.
|‘Scharnhorst’ was sunk north of Norway.
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