Afghanistan hit the world’s headlines in 1979. Afghanistan seemed to perfectly summarise the Cold War. From the west’s point of view, Berlin, Korea, Hungary and Cuba had shown the way communism wanted to proceed. Afghanistan was a continuation of this.
In Christmas 1979, Soviet paratroopers landed in Kabal, the capital of Afghanistan. The country was already in the grip of a civil war. The prime minister, Hazifullah Amin, tried to sweep aside Muslim tradition within the nation and he wanted a more western slant to Afghanistan. This outraged the majority of those in Afghanistan as a strong tradition of Muslim belief was common in the country.
Thousands of Muslim leaders had been arrested and many more had fled the capital and gone to the mountains to escape Amin’s police. Amin also lead a communist based government – a belief that rejects religion and this was another reason for such obvious discontent with his government.
Thousands of Afghanistan Muslims joined the Mujahdeen – a guerilla force on a holy mission for Allah. They wanted the overthrow of the Amin government. The Mujahdeen declared a jihad – a holy war – on the supporters of Amin. This was also extended to the Soviets who were now in Afghanistan trying to maintain the power of the Amin government. The Soviet Union claimed that they had been invited in by the Amin government and that they were not invading the country. They claimed that their task was to support a legitimate government and that the Mujahdeen were no more than terrorists.
On December 27th, 1979, Amin was shot by the Soviets and he was replaced by Babrak Kamal. His position as head of the Afghan government depended entirely on the fact that he needed Soviet military support to keep him in power. Many Afghan soldiers had deserted to the Mujahdeen and the Kamal government needed 85,000 soldiers from the U.S.S.R. to keep him in power.
The Mujahdeen proved to be a formidable opponent. They were equipped with old rifles but had a knowledge of the mountains around Kabal and the weather conditions that would be encountered there. The Soviets resorted to using napalm, poison gas and helicopter gun ships against the Mujahdeen – but they experienced exactly the same military scenario the Americans had done in Vietnam.
By 1982, the Mujahdeen controlled 75% of Afghanistan despite fighting the might of the world’s second most powerful military power. Young conscript soldiers from the U.S.S.R. were no match against men fuelled by their religious belief. Though the Soviet army had a reputation, the war in Afghanistan showed the world just how poor it was outside of military displays. Army boots lasted no more than 10 days before falling to bits in the harsh environment of the Afghanistan mountains. Many Soviet soldiers deserted to the Mujahdeen. Soviet tanks were of little use in the mountain passes.
The United Nations had condemned the invasion as early as January 1980 but a Security Council motion calling for the withdrawal of the Soviet forces had been vetoed……by the U.S.S.R.
America put a ban on the export of grain to Russia, ended the SALT talks taking place then and boycotted the Olympic Games due to be held in Moscow in 1980. Other than that, America did nothing. Why? They knew that the Soviet Union had got itself into their own Vietnam and it also provided American Intelligence with an opportunity to acquire any new Soviet military hardware that could be used in Afghanistan. Mujhadeen fighters were given access to American surface-to-air missiles – though not through direct sales by America.
Mikhail Gorbachev took the U.S.S.R. out of the Afghanistan fiasco when he realised what many Soviet leaders had been too scared to admit in public – that the Soviets could not win the war and the cost of maintaining such a vast force in Afghanistan was crippling the already weak economy of the U.S.S.R.
By the end of the 1980’s, the Mujahdeen was at war with itself in Afghanistan with hard line Taliban fighters taking a stronger grip over the whole nation and imposing very strict Muslim law on the Afghanistan population.